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Direct Analysis of Methadone in Exhaled Breath Condensate by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

[ Vol. 12 , Issue. 2 ]


Samin Hamidi, Maryam Khoubnasabjafari, Khalil Ansarin, Vahid Jouyban-Gharamaleki and Abolghasem Jouyban   Pages 137 - 145 ( 9 )


Background: As the pharmacokinetics of methadone exhibit large inter-subject variability, providing a simple and reliable analytical method for the monitoring of methadone levels in biological samples during methadone maintenance therapy is necessary in order to determine an appropriate maintenance dosage.

Method: Determination of methadone in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is performed using capillary electrophoresis in stacking mode. EBC is obtained using a simple cooling lab-made system.

Results: The simplicity of the EBC matrix renders the sample analyzable without any pretreatment step. The LLOQ is 0.3 µg/mL across a linear range of 0.3–5 µg/mL. The developed method was validated according to US FDA guidelines and successfully applied for the determination of methadone levels in four patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy.

Conclusion: A simple and fast method was presented for determination of methadone in EBC with minimum required sample volume.


Exhaled breath condensate, methadone, capillary electrophoresis, methadone maintenance therapy, field-amplified sample injection, direct injection.


Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664, Iran.

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