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A Microextraction Liquid-Chromatographic Determination of Aristolochic Acid I in Urine, Flour, and Aristolochiaceae Fruit

[ Vol. 13 , Issue. 4 ]


Adeleh Yadeghari, Mohammadreza Ardalan, Mir Ali Farajzadeh and Abolghasem Jouyban*   Pages 345 - 351 ( 7 )


Introduction: Aristolochic acid I, a potent human nephrotoxic and carcinogenic compound produced by aristolochia plants, it is responsible for Balkan endemic nephropathy and is associated with urothelial carcinoma. Method and Materials: A new method named air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed for enrichment of analyte. The mixture of organic extractant and aqueous solution containing the analyte was sucked into a 5-mL glass syringe and pushed into the tube for times. This action produced a cloudy solution which indicated dispersion of organic solvent into aqueous solution, thereupon extraction procedure. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column and mobile phase consist of 15% methanol, 20% acetonitrile, and 65% aqueous acetate buffer solution (pH=5.3). Flow rate of 1 mL min-1 and wavelength of 254 nm were used in analysis. Results: The limits of detection and quantification were obtained as 0.16 and 0.53 µg L-1, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precisions were calculated as relative standard deviations and obtained as 0.66% and 0.72% for 10 µg L-1, respectively.


Aristolochic acid, flour, fruit, high–performance liquid chromatography, microextraction, urine.


Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664, Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz

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