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Separation of Metal–Trifluoperazine Hydrochloride Complexes Using Zwitterionic Ion Chromatography (ZIC) Coupled Online with ICP-AES

[ Vol. 13 , Issue. 4 ]


Andreas Seubert and Ashraf Saad Rasheed*   Pages 328 - 333 ( 6 )


Background: Despite the numerous studies about ZIC and ZIC-HILIC retention modes, the mechanism has not been fully investigated and there are no detailed mechanistic concepts in the literature. Some of the pharmaceutical compounds can act as a strong chelator for multiple charged metal ions of biological importance. Trifluoperazine hydrochloride (TFPH) is a strong chelator for multiple charged metal ions of biological importance (Pd2+, Pt4+, V5+) and other metals. It will be interesting to see if the metal–complexes are also separated using the zwitterionic stationary phase.

Methods and Result: The study of the influence of pH and eluent concentration of metal-TFPH complexes selectivity should give a clue about the properties of the individual zwitterionic stationary phases and thus about the separation mechanism. The retention factors of Pt(IV)-TFPH, Pd(II)-TFPH and V(V)-TFPH complexes decreased with an increasing buffer concentration. The ZIC5 stationary phase as well as the examined commercial stationary phases ZIC-HILIC and ZIC-pHILIC exhibit the same behavior. The retention of the TFPH-Pt(IV), TFPH-Pd(II) and TFPH-V(V) complexes with their positive charge decreased on ZIC5, ZIC-HILIC and ZIC-pHILIC columns when the pH increased in the range between 3 to 6. The results of variations of buffer concentration and mobile phase pH show that metal- TFPH complexes can be separated based cation-exchange interactions and electrostatic interaction between the stationary phase and analyte.

Conclusion: The current study confirmed the ability of ZIC-HILIC stationary phases to separate metalcomplexes. It could be demonstrated that metal-TFPH separations on zwitterionic stationary phase are mainly driven by a cation exchange mechanism.


Trifluoperazine, ion exchange, zwitterionicstationary phase, palladium (II), platinum (IV), vanadium (V).


Faculty of Chemistry, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Str. 4, 35043 Marburg, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad

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