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Determination of Verapamil in Exhaled Breath Condensate by Using Microextraction and Liquid Chromatography

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Fariba Pourkarim, Ali Shayanfar, Maryam Khoubnasabjafari, Fariborz Akbarzadeh, Sanaz Sajedi-Amin, Vahid Jouyban-Gharamaleki and Abolghasem Ghasem Jouyban*   Pages 535 - 541 ( 7 )

Abstract:


Background: Developing a simple analysis method for quantification of drug concentration is one of the essential issues in pharmacokinetic and therapeutic drug monitoring studies.

Objective: A fast and reliable dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure was employed for preconcentration of verapamil in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples and this was followed by the determination with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

Methods: A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) combined with a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (DLLME) was applied for quantification of verapamil in the EBC samples. The developed method was validated according to FDA guidelines.

Results: Under the optimum conditions, the method provided a linear range between 0.07 and 0.8 μg.mL-1 with a coefficient of determination of 0.998. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation and relative error values of the method were below 15%, which indicated good precision and accuracy. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of verapamil in two real samples with concentrations of 0.07 and 0.09 μg.mL-1.

Conclusion: The established HPLC-UV-DLLME method could be applied for the analysis of verapamil in human EBC samples.

Keywords:

Verapamil, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, high-performance liquid chromatography, exhaled breath condensate, cardiovascular diseases, mortality.

Affiliation:

Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Drug Applied Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664, Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664



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