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Simultaneous and sensitive determination of amphetamine, codeine and morphine in exhaled breath condensate, using capillary electrophoresis coupled with on-line and off-line enhancing methods

Author(s):

Samin Hamidi*  

Abstract:


Background: Abuse of drugs is associated with several medical, forensic, toxicology and social challenges. “Drugs of abuse” testing is therefore an important issue.

Objective: We propose a simple CE-based method for the quantification of amphetamine, codeine and morphine after direct injection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) by the aid of simple stacking mode and an off-line pre-concentration method. Method: Using graphene oxide adsorbents, amphetamine, codeine and morphine were extracted from EBC in order to eliminate the proteins and other interferences. In addition to off-line method, an online stacking mode was applied to improve the analytical signal obtained from the instrument.

Results: The validation parameters were experimented on the developed method based on the FDA guideline over concentration ranges of 12.5-100, 30-500 and 10-1250 ng/mL associated with amphetamine, codeine and morphine, respectively. Small volumes (around 100 µL) of EBC were collected using a lab-made setup, and successfully analyzed using the proposed method where precisions and accuracies (within day and between days) were in accordance with the guideline (recommended less than 15% for biological samples). The recovery tests were used to evaluate the matrix effect and data (94 to 105%) showed that the proposed method can be applied in different EBC matrix samplings of subjects.

Conclusion: The proposed method is superior for simultaneous determination of amphetamine, codeine and morphine over chromatographic analyses because it is fast and consumes fewer chemicals, with no derivatization step.

Keywords:

Drugs of abuse, capillary electrophoresis, graphene oxide, sensitivity, off-line pre-concentration, stacking

Affiliation:

Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664



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