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Simultaneous and Sensitive Determination of Amphetamine, Codeine and Morphine in Exhaled Breath Condensate, Using Capillary Electrophoresis Coupled with On-line and Off-line Enhancing Methods

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 7 ]


Samin Hamidi*   Pages 872 - 879 ( 8 )


Background: Abuse of drugs is associated with several medical, forensic, toxicology and social challenges. “Drugs of abuse” testing is therefore an important issue.

Objective: We propose a simple CE-based method for the quantification of amphetamine, codeine and morphine after direct injection of Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) by the aid of simple stacking mode and an off-line pre-concentration method.

Methods: Using graphene oxide adsorbents, amphetamine, codeine and morphine were extracted from EBC in order to eliminate the proteins and other interferences. In addition to off-line method, an online stacking mode was applied to improve the analytical signal obtained from the instrument.

Results: The validation parameters were experimented on the developed method based on the FDA guideline over concentration ranges of 12.5-100, 30-500 and 10-1250 ng/mL associated with amphetamine, codeine and morphine, respectively. Small volumes (around 100 μL) of EBC were collected using a lab-made setup and successfully analyzed using the proposed method where precisions and accuracies (within day and between days) were in accordance with the guideline (recommended less than 15 % for biological samples). The recovery tests were used to evaluate the matrix effect and data (94 to 105 %) showed that the proposed method can be applied in different EBC matrix samplings of subjects.

Conclusion: The proposed method is superior for simultaneous determination of amphetamine, codeine and morphine over chromatographic analyses because it is fast and consumes fewer chemicals, with no derivatization step.


Drugs of abuse, capillary electrophoresis, graphene oxide, sensitivity, off-line pre-concentration, stacking


Food and Drug Safety Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz 51664

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