Submit Manuscript  

Article Details

Sequential Injection Chromatography with Monolithic Column for Phenothiazines Assay in Human Urine and Pharmaceutical Formulations

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 7 ]


Abubakr M. Idris*   Pages 967 - 975 ( 9 )


Background: Sequential injection chromatography (SIC) with monolithic column has been proposed with potential benefits for separation and quantification.

Objective: To utilize SIC to develop a new assay method for the separation and quantification of some phenothiazines (promethazine, chlorpromazine and perphenazine) in human urine and synthetic pharmaceutical formulations.

Methods: The 32 full-factorial design was adopted to study the effect of mobile phase composition on separation efficiency, retention time, peak height and baseline. The separation was conducted on a C18 monolithic column (100 × 4.6 mm) using a mobile phase composition of phosphate: acetonitrile:methanol (60:28:12) at pH 4.0. The detection was carried out using a miniaturized fiber optic spectrometer at 250 nm.

Results: Satisfactory analytical features, including number of theoretical plates (1809-6232), peak symmetry (1.0-1.3), recovery (95.5-99.1% in pharmaceutical formulations and 91.6-94.7% in urine), intra-day precision (0.36-1.60% for pharmaceutical formulation and 2.96-3.67 for urine), inter-day precision (1.47-2.28% for pharmaceutical formulation), limits of detection (0.23-0.88 μg/ml) and limits of quantification (0.77-2.90 μg/ml), were obtained.

Conclusion: The remarkable advantages of the proposed SIC method are the inexpensiveness in terms of instrumentation and reagent consumption.


Sequential injection chromatography, bioanalysis, pharmaceutical analysis, phenothiazines, monolithic column, human urine.


Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413

Graphical Abstract:

Read Full-Text article