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Voltammetric Pathways for the Analysis of Ophthalmic Drugs

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 4 ]


Onur Inam*, Ersin Demir and Bengi Uslu*   Pages 367 - 391 ( 25 )


Background: This review investigates the ophthalmic drugs that have been studied with voltammetry in the web of science database in the last 10 years.

Introduction: Ophthalmic drugs are used in the diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of various ophthalmological diseases and conditions. A significant literature has emerged in recent years that investigates determination of these active compounds via electroanalytical methods, particularly voltammetry. Low cost, rapid determination, high availability, efficient sensitivity and simple application make voltammetry one of the most used methods for determining various kinds of drugs including ophthalmic ones.

Methods: In this particular review, we searched the literature via the web of science database for ophthalmic drugs which are investigated with voltammetric techniques using the keywords of voltammetry, electrochemistry, determination and electroanalytical methods.

Results: We found 33 types of pharmaceuticals in nearly 140 articles. We grouped them clinically into seven major groups as antibiotics, antivirals, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-glaucomatous drugs, steroidal drugs, local anesthetics and miscellaneous. Voltammetric techniques, electrodes, optimum pHs, peak potentials, limit of detection values, limit of quantification values, linearity ranges, sample type and interference effects were compared.

Conclusion: Ophthalmic drugs are widely used in the clinic and it is important to determine trace amounts of these species analytically. Voltammetry is a preferred method for its ease of use, high sensitivity, low cost, and high availability for the determination of ophthalmic drugs as well as many other medical drugs. The low limits of detection values indicate that voltammetry is quite sufficient for determining ophthalmic drugs in many media such as human serum, urine and ophthalmic eye drops.


Ophthalmology, ophthalmic drugs, voltammetry, determination, electrochemistry, electroanalytical methods.


Department of Ophthalmology, Ulucanlar Eye Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Afyonkarahisar University of Health Sciences, Afyonkarahisar, 03200, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ankara University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara

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