Submit Manuscript  

Article Details

Comparative Study of Different Derivative Spectrophotometric Techniques for the Analysis and Separation of Metformin, Empagliflozin, and Glimepiride


Khanda F.M. Amin*, Nabil A. Fakhre and Ahmed M. Abdullaha   Pages 1 - 19 ( 19 )


Background: In some cases, lifestyle changes are not enough to keep type 2 diabetes under control, there are several medications that may help. Metformin can lower your blood sugar levels. Glimepiride, make more insulin. Empagliflozin, prevent the kidneys from reabsorbing sugar into the blood and sending it out in urine.

Methods: Mean centering, double divisor, ratio spectra-zero crossing, and successive derivative were applied for estimation of metformin, empagliflozin, and glimepiride respectively, in their prepared laboratory mixtures and in pharmaceutical tablets, without prior chemical separation. The absorption spectra of the mentioned drugs were recorded in the range of 200-400nm.

Results: These methods were linear over the concentration ranges of 1.0-10, 2.5-30, and 1.0-10 µgmL-1 of metformin, empagliflozin, and glimepiride respectively. Mean centering for metformin were measured at 234 and 248 nm, empagliflozin and glimepiride had amplitude values at 276 and 262 nm, respectively. The derivative of double divisor was measured at 234, 278, and 288 nm for metformin, empagliflozin and glimepiride, respectively. The ratio spectra-zero crossing was quantifying at the amplitude values of the analytical signal at 234 and 274 nm for metformin and empagliflozin, respectively, whereas glimepiride was determined at 242 and 286 nm. The successive ratio of metformin, empagliflozin, and glimepiride were determined at 284, 242, and 266 nm, respectively.

Conclusion: The methods are validated according to the ICH guidelines where accuracy, precision and repeatability are found to be within the acceptable limit. The methods were studied and optimized, upon the validation linearity, precision, accuracy, LOD, LOQ and selectivity were proved to be operative for analysis of the specified drugs in pharmaceutical dosage configuration. The statistical illustration was done between the suggested methods with the reported methods with consideration to accuracy and precision no significant difference was found by student’s t-test, F-test and one-way ANOVA.


Drug combination, Hypoglycemic agents, Pharmaceutical preparation, Derivative Spectrophotometric, zero-crossing, Mean centering


Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Department of Chemistry, College of Education, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani

Read Full-Text article