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Quantitation of Conjugation-related Residual Solvents in Antibody Drug Conjugates using Headspace Gas Chromatography

Author(s):

Ruth V. Zuniga, Jacob Kay, Jason Gruenhagen and Colin D. Medley*   Pages 1 - 9 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs) are complex hybrid molecules comprised of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) connected to a small molecule drug through a linker. The key step in the production of ADCs is bringing together the protein in an aqueous buffer with a hydrophobic small molecule in order to achieve conjugation of the molecules. This step involves dissolving the small molecule portion of the compound in an aqueous miscible organic solvent. These solvents and unconjugated small molecules are ideally cleared by downstream processing in order to achieve the desired product quality. As part of the control system to ensure product quality, determination of residual solvents in pharmaceuticals is of significant importance in order to protect patient safety and ensure an efficacious drug. Headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) is the most widely used tool for quantification of residual solvents for small molecule active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) but is not widely used for the analysis of protein containing samples. In this study, the detection of residual solvents in headspace injections was explored using various conditions in order to detect commonly used conjugation solvents including N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG), and propylene glycol (PG) in an ADC drug product sample. Various organic solvents were explored to enhance the response observed with complex protein and residual solvent matrixes. As EG and PG do not partition into the headspace efficiently in the ADC drug product samples that contain large amounts of water, ionic liquids and other ionic compounds were screened with the ADC samples to see if they could improve the partitioning of the key solvents EG and PG. Following headspace and chromatographic optimization, we have developed an approach for the detection and quantification of several conjugation reaction solvents in ADC samples. This new approach is a HS-GC method that simplifies gas chromatography (GC) analysis and sample preparation and can be readily implemented in quality control testing for bioconjugated products.

Keywords:

Antibody Drug Conjugate, Headspace Gas Chromatography, Residual Solvents, Pharmaceutical Analysis

Affiliation:

Small Molecule Analytical Chemistry, Genentech, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, Small Molecule Analytical Chemistry, Genentech, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, Small Molecule Analytical Chemistry, Genentech, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, Small Molecule Analytical Chemistry, Genentech, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080



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