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Relationship between chronic disturbance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate metabolism in erythrocytes and Alzheimer disease

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 1 ]

Author(s):

Elena A. Kosenko, Gjumrakch Aliev and Yury G. Kaminsky   Pages 113 - 123 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders widely occurring among the elderly. The pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of this disease are still unknown. In AD, in addition to brain, a number of peripheral tissues and cells are affected, including erythrocytes. In this study, we analyzed glycolytic energy metabolism, antioxidant status, glutathione, adenylate and proteolytic systems in erythrocytes from patients with AD and compared with those from age-matched controls and young adult controls. Glycolytic enzymes hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, bisphosphoglycerate mutase and bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase displayed lower activities in agematched controls, and higher activities in AD patients, as compared to those in young adult control subjects. In both aging and AD, oxidative stress is increased in erythrocytes whereas elevated concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides as well as decreased glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio and glutathione transferase activity can be detected. These oxidative disturbances are also accompanied by reductions in ATP levels, adenine nucleotide pool size and adenylate energy charge. Caspase-3 and calpain activities in age-matched controls and AD patients were about three times those of young adult controls. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels were significantly decreased in AD patients. Taken together these data suggest that AD patients are associated with chronic disturbance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate metabolism in erythrocytes. These defects may play a central role in pathophysiological processes predisposing elderly subjects to dementia.

Keywords:

2,3-diphosphoglycerate, erythrocyte, glycolysis, late-onset Alzheimer disease, oxygen affinity of hemoglobin, peripheral markers.

Affiliation:

, President “GALLY” International Biomedical Research Institute Inc., San Antonio, TX, USA



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