Wafaa Waleed Al-Qaysi*, Mohammad K. Hammood and Eqbal Naji Tawfeeq
As shown in this review, numerous analytical methods have been included to distinguish pigments in tattoo, paint, and ink items. The selection of method was dependent upon the purpose, e.g., quantification or identification of pigments only. The introduction part of this review focuses on describing the importance of setting up a pigment-associated safety profile. The formation of different degradation chemical substances as well as impurity trends can be indicated througha chemical investigation of pigments in tattoo products. It is noteworthy that the pigment recognition in tattoo inks can work as a preliminary method to identify the pigments in a patient's tattoo before being removed by laser therapy. Contrary to the study of forbidden pigments, the identification process would usually require just a few indication substances for positive dye. In general, the tattoo pigments are almost insoluble in an aqueous solution, and lots of organic solvents, and various pigment analyses have been conducted. It is proposed that in the future, laboratories concerned with tattoo substance analysis should have access to extensive pigment specifications and spectroscopic databases. The most important and recent physiological side effects of tattooing have been discussed in this review.
tattoo ink, analytical methods, pigments, heavy metals, side effects, and physiological.
Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo and Biosensors, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, 93040 Regensburg, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Al-Jadriya campus, 10071 Baghdad, Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Al-Jadriya campus, 10071 Baghdad